Lottery of Birth
On Inherited Social Inequalities
An egalitarian ethos has not been a prominent feature of Indian civilization, at least since the decline of Buddhism over a thousand years ago. All people, it is believed, are created unequal, born into a hierarchy of status and dignity, and endowed not with universal but particular rights and duties. This has greatly amplified the unfairness of accidents of birth in shaping one's lot in life. Despite a long history of resistance, such inequalities have thrived and mutated, including under European rule, modernity, and markets.